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The avian respiratory system is extensive and complex. Becoming familiar with the normal presentation of respiratory anatomy through use of different imaging techniques will enhance a clinician's ability to make a diagnosis. This is the second of two articles using radiographic images and computed tomography (CT) to compare normal respiratory structures of the avian respiratory system. Note that the size of the patient dictates the size of the CT image. In this case, the patient is very small; thus, the images have become somewhat blurry with enlarging. Nevertheless, contrast is an important factor in CT imaging and the structures are quite clear.

This article focuses on the head; the first part (May 2003) addressed the body.