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Nasal Capillariosis Treatment in Dogs

Clinician's Brief (Capsule)

Parasitology

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February 2015

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Capillaria boehmi, a capillarid nematode, infects the nasal and sinus cavities of wild and domestic canids. Although rare in pet dogs, nasal capillariosis is a potentially emerging infection in temperate areas of the Americas and Europe. Clinical signs include sneezing, nasal discharge, and epistaxis. This pilot trial investigated the safety and efficacy of a spot-on formulation of 10% imidacloprid with 2.5% moxidectin in treating naturally occurring nasal capillariosis in dogs. Sixteen dogs with C boehmi eggs present on fecal examination were included for study. Diagnosis of nasal capillariosis was confirmed either via rhinoscopy or species-specific PCR on fecal specimens. Dogs were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups; group T (n = 8) were treated, group C (n = 8) received no treatment. Dogs were retested for the presence of C boehmi on day 28 via fecal flotation and either rhinoscopy or species-specific PCR. In group T, 7 of 8 dogs tested negative on day 28; all group C dogs had persistent infection. One group-T dog was persistently infected on day 28 ±2 and was retreated, subsequently testing negative on day 56. Seven animals in group C were given a rescue dose of the spot-on formulation on day 28, and all subsequently tested negative for C boehmi on fecal flotation and species-specific PCR. Clinical signs had resolved for all dogs by the end of treatment. The authors conclude that 10% imidacloprid/2.5% moxidectin spot-on is a promising treatment for naturally occurring nasal capillariosis in dogs. Study was funded by a grant provided by Bayer Animal Health.

10% imidacloprid/2.5% moxidectin spot-on is a promising treatment for naturally occurring nasal capillariosis in dogs.

Commentary

Nasal capillariosis is a recognized, but incompletely understood condition affecting wild and domestic canids. The causative agent, Capillaria boehmi (syn. Eucoleus boehmi), is potentially spreading in the Americas and Europe, resulting in symptomatic infections. While subclinical infection is possible, dogs with clinical signs exhibit sneezing, reverse sneezing, nasal discharge, and decreased scenting ability. Aberrant migration is possible resulting in meningoencephalitis. Currently, there is no approved treatment for C boehmi infections. In this study, the majority of dogs cleared the infection in a single dose (14/15); the exception was 1 heavily infected dog that cleared the infection after 2 doses. Further study is needed to more accurately define the safety, efficacy, and possible preventive effects with long-term administration as infected dogs are at risk for reinfection.—Chris Adolph, DVM, MS (Parasitology)

References

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