Wild mushroom ingestion is associated with various signs, including ptyalism, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypovolemia, and stupor. Mushrooms containing muscarine can cause parasympathetic effects (eg, miosis, bradycardia). Nonspecific signs that overlap with other toxicoses can make mushroom toxicosis difficult to diagnose unless the dog was seen eating mushrooms or mushrooms appeared in diarrhea or vomitus.
This case study analyzed the records of 5 dogs with mushroom toxicosis. All recently spent unsupervised time outdoors with wild mushrooms present and/or had mushrooms in the vomitus or diarrhea. The first abnormality noted was severe ptyalism (n = 5), followed by acute vomiting (n = 4), diarrhea (n = 5), and subsequent neurologic signs. Other signs included hypovolemia (n = 4), stupor (n = 3), obtundation (n = 1), hypothermia (n = 2), and miosis (n = 2). Serum lipase activity was elevated in 4 dogs and canine-specific pancreatic lipase (cPL) elevated in the remaining dog. Treated dogs (n = 4) received aggressive IV fluid therapy, antibiotics, and supportive care and recovered within 24–72 hours. The fifth dog was euthanized because of sign severity. Despite life-threatening signs at presentation, dogs with mushroom toxicosis can recover with aggressive supportive care.