These sounds can be used as a comparison tool for practitioners. Following patient auscultation in the clinical setting, practitioners can listen to the heart sounds below to help identify those encountered in practice.

These recordings, taken with an electronic stethoscope on actual patients, may include some background noise. The sounds have not been modified; headphones are recommended for optimal listening. Unless specified, all sounds are from canine patients.

Cardiac Library

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Vertebral left atrial size (VLAS) is an objective radiographic measurement that can help determine whether left atrial enlargement is present with suspected or diagnosed myxomatous mitral valve disease. Review how to calculate VLAS in dogs.

ARTICLEPeer Reviewed
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There are 12 components of a basic cardiology examination. Can you name them all?

ARTICLEPeer Reviewed
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Vertebral heart score is useful when evaluating dogs for cardiomegaly, but different breeds may have different reference limits. Review this study that evaluated these measurements in Chihuahuas.

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