Recognizing infectious diseases can be challenging, as clinical signs and laboratory findings are often similar among diseases and may mimic neoplastic or immune-mediated disease. The cases presented here illustrate how some uncommon but re-emerging infectious diseases can be identified rapidly and treated appropriately.
A 3-year-old, neutered male crossbreed sighthound is presented with a week-long history of lethargy and progressive loss of appetite. The dog was recently adopted from a shelter in the Los Angeles area and appeared healthy at adoption. He received all core vaccinations and was neutered while under the care of the shelter.
On physical examination, the veterinarian notices pale mucous membranes with pinpoint petechiae (Figure 1). Abdominal palpation reveals moderate splenomegaly. The remainder of the examination is within normal limits.
CBC results reveal normal values for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. However, the following parameters are outside reference ranges:
|WBC (cells/µL)||3460||6000-13 000|
|Neutrophils (cells/µL)||1592||3000-10 500|
|Platelets (cells/µL)||85 000||150 000-400 000|
MCHC = mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCV = mean corpuscular volume, MPV = mean platelet volume
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