April 2017
Endocrinology & Metabolic Diseases
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Quiz: Feline Diabetes

This quiz on feline diabetes mellitus reviews key principles in the diagnosis and management of the disease. Feeding recommendations, differential diagnoses, diagnostic testing, insulin therapy, diabetic neuropathy, and long-term monitoring are covered. 

Quiz: Feline Diabetes

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Quiz: Feline Diabetes
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References and author information Show
References
  1. Hoenig M, Thomaseth K, Waldron M, Ferguson DC. Insulin sensitivity, fat distribution, and adipocytokine response to different diets in lean and obese cats before and after weight loss. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292(1):R227-R234. 
  2. Mazzaferro EM, Greco DS, Turner AS, Fettman MJ. Treatment of feline diabetes mellitus using an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor and a low-carbohydrate diet. J Feline Med Surg. 2003;5(3):183-189. 
  3. Bennett N, Greco DS, Peterson ME, Kirk C, Mathes M. Fettman MJ. Comparison of a low carbohydrate–low fiber diet and a moderate carbohydrate–high fiber diet in the management of feline diabetes mellitus. J Feline Med Surg. 2006;8(2):73-84.
  4. Kirk CA. Feline diabetes mellitus: low carbohydrates versus high fiber? Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2006;36(6):1297-1306.
  5. Biourge V, Nelson RW, Feldman EC, Willits NH, Morris JG, Rogers QR. Effect of weight gain and subsequent weight loss on glucose tolerance and insulin response in healthy cats. J Vet Intern Med. 1997;11(2):86-91. 
  6. Tvarijonaviciute A, Ceron JJ, Holden SL, Morris PJ, Biourge V, German AJ. Effects of weight loss in obese cats on biochemical analytes related to inflammation and glucose homeostasis. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2012;42(3):129-141. 
  7. Toll PW, Tamka RM, Schoenherr WD, Hand MS. Obesity. In: Hand MS, Thatcher CD, Remillard RL, Roudebush P, Novotny BJ, eds. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition. 5th ed. Topeka KS: Mark Morris Institute; 2010:501-544/
  8. Martin G, Rand J. Current understanding of feline diabetes: part 2, treatment. J Feline Med Surg. 2000;2(1):3-17.
  9. Wei A, Fascetti AJ, Villaverde C, Wong RK, Ramsey JJ. Effect of water content in a canned food on voluntary food intake and body weight in cats. Am J Vet Res. 2011;72(7):918-923. 
  10. Buckley CM, Hawthorne A, Colyer A, Stevenson AE. Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat. Br J Nutr. 2011;106(Suppl 1):S128-S130. 
  11. Carciofi AC, Bazzoli RS, Zanni A, Kihara LRL, Prada F. Influence of water content and the digestibility of pet foods on the water balance of cats. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci (São Paulo). 2005;42(6):429-434. 
  12. Seefeldt SL, Chapman TE. Body water content and turnover in cats fed dry and canned rations. Am J Vet Res. 1979;40(2):183-185. 
  13. O’Neill DG, Gostelow R, Orme C, et al. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus among 193,435 cats attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. J Vet Intern Med. 2016; doi: 10.1111/jvim.14365. Epub ahead of print.
  14. Rios L, Ward C. Feline diabetes mellitus: diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Compend Contin Educ Vet. 2008;30(12):626-639.
  15. Peterson ME, Broome M, Rishniw M. Prevalence and degree of thyroid pathology in hyperthyroid cats increases with disease duration: a cross-sectional analysis of 2096 cats referred for radioiodine therapy. J Feline Med Surg. 2016;18(2):92-103.
  16. Stephens MJ, O’Neill DG, Church DB, McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Brodbelt DC. Feline hyperthyroidism reported in primary-care veterinary practices in England: prevalence, associated factors and spatial distribution. Vet Rec. 2014;175(18):458.
  17. Jergens AE. Feline idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: what we know and what remains to be unraveled. J Feline Med Surg. 2012;14(7):445-458.
  18. Xenoulis PG, Zoran DL, Fosgate GT, Suchodolski JS, Steiner JM. Feline exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: a retrospective study of 150 cases. J Vet Intern Med. 2016;30(6):1790-1797.
  19. Reynolds BS, Lefebvre HP. Feline CKD: pathophysiology and risk factors—what do we know? J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(Suppl 1):3-14.
  20. Sparkes AH, Cannon M, Church D, et al. ISFM consensus guidelines on the practical management of diabetes mellitus in cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2015;17(3):235-250.
  21. Gilor C, Niessen SJ, Furrow E, DiBartola SP. What’s in a name? Classification of diabetes mellitus in veterinary medicine and why it matters. J Vet Intern Med. 2016;30(4):927-940.
  22. Hall TD, Mahony O, Rozanski EA, Freeman LM. Effects of diet on glucose control in cats with diabetes mellitus treated with twice daily insulin glargine. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11(2):125-130.
  23. Gilor C, Rudinsky AJ, Hall MJ. New approaches to feline diabetes mellitus: glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs. J Feline Med Surg. 2016;18(9):733-743.
  24. Reusch CE. Feline diabetes mellitus. In: Feldman EC, RW Nelson, Reusch CE, Scott-Moncrieff JCR, Behrend EN, eds. Canine and Feline Endocrinology. 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:258-314.
  25. Whitley NT, Drobatz KJ, Panciera DL. Insulin overdose in dogs and cats: 28 cases (1986–1993). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1997;211(3):326-330.
  26. Mizisin AP, Shelton GD, Burgers ML, Powell HC, Cuddon PA. Neurological complications associated with spontaneously occurring feline diabetes mellitus. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2002;61(10):872-884.
  27. Muñana KR. Long-term complications of diabetes mellitus, part 1: retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1995;25(3):715-730.
  28. Bailiff NL, Nelson RW. Feldman EC, et al. Frequency and risk factors for urinary tract infection in cats with diabetes mellitus. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20(4):850-855.
  29. Mayor-Roenne B, Goldstein RE, Erb HN. Urinary tract infections in cats with hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. J Feline Med Surg. 2007;9(2):124-132.
  30. Niessen SJ, Petrie G, Gaudiano F, et al. Feline acromegaly: an underdiagnosed endocrinopathy? J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21(5):889-905.
Author

Adam Rudinsky

DVM, MS, DACVIM The Ohio State University

Adam Rudinsky, DVM, MS, DACVIM, works in the internal medicine service at The Ohio State University. He has performed research in gastroenterology, pancreatology, and hepatology. Adam earned his DVM from The Ohio State University, and completed a small animal rotating internship at Purdue University and a residency at The Ohio State University. He has received several teaching and hospital service awards.

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