Two of the most common orthopedic conditions causing lameness in the dog affect joints of the pelvic limb: canine hip dysplasia and cranial cruciate ligament disease. These disorders can exist independently or simultaneously. Many other conditions can also be present and somewhat depend on the age, breed, and lifestyle of the dog. As with the forelimb, the rear limb can be divided into anatomic regions to assist with examination: paw, tarsus, tibia/fibula, stifle or knee, femur, hip, and pelvis. Examination should always begin with observing the dog walking to confirm rear limb lameness. Lameness can vary in severity from non–weight-bearing to mild shortness of stride during weight-bearing. The dog should also be examined for postural changes consistent with pelvic limb disorders, such as unwillingness to flex the knee during sitting (the“sit test”) and hyperextension or hyperflexion of the tarsal joint. Neurologic examination should accompany orthopedic examination to rule out other sources of limb dysfunction, such as peripheral neuropathies or, more commonly, intervertebral disc disease and lumbosacral disease.