MSM = methylsulfonylmethane
*Macroscopic hematuria occurs when the quantity of blood in urine is visible to the naked eye (eg, pink, red, dark brown in color; may contain blood clots). Microscopic hematuria is characterized by small numbers of RBCs in urine and is only visible during microscopic examination of urine sediment.4
+The timing of hematuria is not always diagnostically accurate.
†Renal hematuria is often subclinical.
- Runge JJ, Berent AC, Mayhew PD, Weisse C. Transvesicular percutaneous cystolithotomy for the retrieval of cystic and urethral calculi in dogs and cats: 27 cases (2006-2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2011;239(3):344-349.
- Martinez I, Mattoon JS, Eaton KA, Chew DJ, DiBartola SP. Polypoid cystitis in 17 dogs (1978-2001). J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17(4):499-509.
- Berent AC, Weisse CW, Branter E, et al. Endoscopic-guided sclerotherapy for renal-sparing treatment of idiopathic renal hematuria in dogs: 6 cases (2010-2012). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013;242(11):1556-1563.
- Forrester SD. Diagnostic approach to hematuria in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2004;34(4):849-866.
- Laflamme DP, Hannah SS. Nutritional genomics. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine; vol 1. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:163-166.
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