Content continues after advertisement

Frequency of Urinary Tract Infection in Dogs Treated with Oclacitinib

William Oldenhoff, DVM, DACVD, ACCESS Specialty Animal Hospital, San Fernando Valley, California

Sign in to Print/View PDF

In the Literature

Simpson AC, Schissler JR, Rosychuk RAW, Moore AR. The frequency of urinary tract infection and subclinical bacteriuria in dogs with allergic dermatitis treated with oclacitinib: a prospective study. Vet Dermatol. 2017;28(5):485-e113.


Several drugs used to treat chronic skin diseases in dogs can predispose patients to UTI and bacteriuria. These sequelae have been established in dogs that receive glucocorticoids and cyclosporine,1-3 but it has not been established whether oclacitinib also predisposes dogs to UTI. Approximately 0.5% to 11.3% of allergic dogs treated with oclacitinib have had clinical signs described as cystitis; however, quantitative urine cultures were not performed.4-6 In addition, there were previously no studies that investigated the frequency of UTI or subclinical bacteriuria in dogs receiving oclacitinib in the absence of other predisposing urinary or metabolic concerns. The purpose of this study* was to evaluate the frequency of UTI and subclinical bacteriuria in dogs receiving oclacitinib.

Fifty-five dogs were included in the study. All were at least 24 months of age and had a history of allergic dermatitis and no apparent history of urinary tract disease or predisposition to UTI. Dogs with bacteriuria or positive urine culture and susceptibility results within the previous 24 months were excluded from the study. Steroids, antibiotics, cyclosporine, and lokivetmab were withdrawn for suitable periods before the study and were not allowed during the study. Forty-seven of the 55 dogs received oclacitinib for over 180 days and had follow-up urinalyses and quantitative urine cultures. The remaining dogs were withdrawn early due to need for systemic antimicrobials (n = 6), decreased efficacy of oclacitinib over time (n = 1), or urinary incontinence (n = 1); follow-up cultures were performed earlier in these dogs.

None of the study patients developed positive urine cultures during the study. A small number of dogs (n = 7) developed microscopic hematuria; however, in 6 of these dogs, this occurrence was suspected to be iatrogenic from cystocentesis. Granular casts, crystalluria, and pyuria were noted in 3 dogs, 9 dogs, and 1 dog, respectively. These developments were deemed not clinically significant because of lack of lower urinary tract signs and negative bacterial cultures.

*This study was supported in part by a Zoetis Excellence in Dermatology Research Grant.


Key pearls to put into practice:


Oclacitinib was not associated with increased risk for UTI or subclinical bacteriuria. Routine urine cultures are not warranted if a dog is receiving only oclacitinib.



If a patient receiving oclacitinib has a prior history of UTI or suffers from a condition predisposing to UTI, routine urinalysis with culture is warranted.



No novel nonurinary adverse events were reported. Consistent with previous reports,4,7 GI events, which were noted in 7.3% of study patients, were the most common adverse event.


For global readers, a calculator to convert laboratory values, dosages, and other measurements to SI units can be found here.

All Clinician's Brief content is reviewed for accuracy at the time of publication. Previously published content may not reflect recent developments in research and practice.

Material from Clinician's Brief may not be reproduced, distributed, or used in whole or in part without prior permission of Educational Concepts, LLC. For questions or inquiries please contact us.


Clinician's Brief:
The Podcast
Listen as host Alyssa Watson, DVM, talks with the authors of your favorite Clinician’s Brief articles. Dig deeper and explore the conversations behind the content here.
Clinician's Brief provides relevant diagnostic and treatment information for small animal practitioners. It has been ranked the #1 most essential publication by small animal veterinarians for 9 years.*

*2007-2017 PERQ and Essential Media Studies

© 2023 Educational Concepts, L.L.C. dba Brief Media ™ All Rights Reserved. Terms & Conditions | DMCA Copyright | Privacy Policy | Acceptable Use Policy