It is imperative to understand the difference between normal whelping and dystocia. The following criteria are useful for this purpose, as well as indications for medical and surgical management.
Cheryl Lopate, MS, DVM, DACT, Reproductive Revolutions, Aurora, Oregon, & Wilsonville Veterinary Clinic, Wilsonville, Oregon
For global readers, a calculator to convert laboratory values, dosages, and other measurements to SI units can be found here.
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