Effect of Canagliflozin in Dogs With Diabetes Mellitus

ArticleLast Updated July 20241 min read
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Box JR, Oyama MA, Mosenco AS, Hess RS. Effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin on interstitial glucose concentration in insulin-treated diabetic dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2024;38(3):1353-1358. doi:10.1111/jvim.17053

Research Note

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) decrease blood glucose by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Diabetic ketoacidosis and euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis are potential adverse effects of SGLT2i in cats and humans; data about benefits and risks in dogs are lacking.

This study examined use of canagliflozin, an SGLT2i approved for use in humans, in 5 dogs with diabetes mellitus. Dogs were administered canagliflozin (2-4 mg/kg PO every 24 hours) and their current insulin dose for 7 days. Median interstitial glucose was significantly lower and median fractional glucose excretion was higher in dogs treated with canagliflozin and insulin versus insulin alone. Frequency of hypoglycemia was also higher in dogs given canagliflozin and insulin; however, no dogs developed clinical signs of hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis. Canagliflozin may improve glycemic control in diabetic dogs treated with insulin, but the study authors recommended decreasing the insulin dose when these medications are administered concurrently.