Gregory F. Grauer, DVM, MS, DACVIM (SAIM), College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University
Sarah Guess, DVM, MS, Columbia River Veterinary Specialists, Vancouver, Washington
Gregory F. Grauer, DVM, MS, DACVIM (SAIM), is a professor and Jarvis chair of medicine in the department of clinical sciences at Kansas State University. He earned his DVM from Iowa State University and completed an internship and residency and earned his master’s degree at Colorado State University. Dr. Grauer has served as president and chairman for the ACVIM Board of Regents. He received the SmithKline Beecham Award for Research Excellence in veterinary nephrology and was appointed a Morris Animal Foundation Fellow for his work on canine glomerular disease. Dr. Grauer serves on the International Renal Interest Society board and is a past member of the advisory board of the American Society of Veterinary Nephrology and Urology.
Sarah Guess, DVM, MS, is an internal medicine veterinarian at Columbia River Veterinary Specialists in Vancouver, Washington. Her clinical interests include acute/chronic kidney disease, geriatric feline and canine medicine, endocrinology, immune-mediated and infectious disease, and endoscopy. Dr. Guess earned her DVM from Washington State University. She completed a small animal medicine and surgery internship in Mesa, Arizona, and completed a small animal internal medicine residency and earned her master’s degree in biomedical sciences at Kansas State University, where she was voted Resident of the Year.
|Weight loss, poor coat, poor body condition||+||-|
|Small, irregular kidneys (on radiography or palpation)||+||-|
|Small, irregular kidneys with hyperechoic cortices with or without loss of corticomedullary junction (on ultrasonography)||+||-|
|Chronic history of polyuria/polydipsia or stage 1 CKD||+||-|
|Urine sediment changes compatible with tubular cell damage (eg, granular casts, renal tubular epithelial cells)||-||+|
|Relatively severe signs for magnitude of azotemia||-||+|
*+ = presence more likely; - = presence less likely
|Deficit needs(8% 20 kg) over 6 hours||= 1600 mL (replace over 4-6 hours)|
|Maintenance (60 mL/kg/day)||= 1200 mL/day|
|Continuing losses (dog vomits 4 times at 100 mL/episode)||= 400 mL/day|
|Total||= 3200 mL/day (deficit replaced over 4-6 hours if possible)|
|Insensible fluid needs||20 mL/kg/day||20 mL/kg/day||20 mL/kg/day|
|Sensible fluid needs (urine output)||40 mL/kg/day||6 mL/kg/day||165 mL/kg/day|
|Total||60 mL/kg/day||26 mL/kg/day||185 mL/kg/day|
AKI = acute kidney injury,BP = blood pressure,CKD = chronic kidney disease,PCR = polymerase chain reaction,UP:C = urine protein:creatinine,USG = urine specific gravity
For global readers, a calculator to convert laboratory values, dosages, and other measurements to SI units can be found here.
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