March 2017
Peer Reviewed

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*Permissive hypercapnia is a ventilation strategy in which oxygenation is prioritized over expired carbon dioxide. Higher than normal carbon dioxide levels are allowed because of low ventilation that preserves the lungs.


AV = atrioventricular, BOAS = brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome, CO = cardiac output, HR = heart rate, IPPV = intermittent positive pressure ventilation, MABP = mean arterial blood pressure, PEEP = positive end-expiratory pressure, SIRS = systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SV = stroke volume, SVR = systemic vascular resistance

Pertinent Calculations

  • Blood pressure = CO × SVR
  • CO = SV × HR
References and author information Show
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Suggested Reading

  • Seymour C, Duke-Novakovski T, eds. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2nd ed. Gloucester, England: British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 2007.
  • Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon JC, Grimm KA, eds. Lumb and Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th ed. Ames, IA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; August 21, 2007.

Maria Angeles Jimenez Lozano

DVM, CertVA, DECVAA, MRCVS North Downs Specialist Referrals, Bletchingley, United Kingdom

Maria Angeles Jimenez Lozano, DVM, CertVA, DECVAA, MRCVS, is a specialist veterinary anesthetist and the head of the anesthesia department at North Downs Referrals Specialists in Bletchingley, United Kingdom. Her clinical interests are pain recognition and management, anesthetic management of the compromised patient, and artificial ventilation. She earned her DVM from Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and completed an anesthesia internship and residency at Royal Veterinary College of London. 

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