This is an extensive review of drugs available for managing various aspects of canine and feline reproduction. Surgical sterilization is still the best option for pregnancy prevention. Nonsurgical contraceptive drugs for female dogs are limited; mibolerone has been removed from the market. Options include progestin drugs, such as megestrol acetate, but these come with the risk for cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra, and a uterine condition predisposing dogs to infertility. On the horizon are contraceptive vaccines for male and female dogs that generate antibodies to luteinizing hormone–releasing hormones. Outside the United States, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists have been approved for use in male dogs. Safe and effective drugs for canine pregnancy termination are limited—currently the drug used most often is dexamethasone; cabergoline is often used in cats. The most common method for managing pyometra has been surgery, but antiprogestins, such as aglepristone in dogs and cats, have been used successfully. For medical management of dystocia, calcium gluconate and synthetic oxytocin are still the drugs of choice. Benign prostatic hypertrophy is a common problem in intact dogs, and the authors describe the use of finasteride, a synthetic 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor; however, this drug is not approved for use in dogs in the United States.This article also reviews the use of drugs during pregnancy and summarizes drugs that are safe to use and those that are associated with adverse effects. In addition, it provides a summary table from the Food and Drug Administration about these drugs; the table includes anesthetics, vaccinations, antibiotics, antifungal agents, parasiticidal agents, and sedatives.

Many of the older drugs discussed in this 29-page review have been discontinued, but newer options are available. Described in detail are drugs for pyometra, dystocia, eclampsia, and premature labor. The article also thoroughly but concisely reviews the reproductive cycle of dogs and cats. The reference tables are an invaluable aid for any practitioner who manages breeding animals.—Karen A. Moriello, DVM, Diplomate ACVD

Pharmacologic advances in canine and feline reproduction. Wiebe VJ, Howard JP. TOPICS COMPAN ANIM MED 24:71-99, 2009.